In this post we study projective representations of $SO(3)$, although we will make more use of $SU(2)$. At the end of this post we reach the conclusion that one will think about polynomials with odd or even terms. Projective representations have its own significance in physics although the room of this post is too small to contain it. Nevertheless, the reader is invited to use linear algebra much more extensively with a taste of modern physics in this post.
In this post we show the Mason-Stothers theorem, the so-called $abc$ theorem for polynomials, and derive Fermat's Last theorem and Davenport's inequality for polynomials. These three theorems correspond to the $abc$ conjecture, Fermat's Last Theorem and Hall's conjecture in number theory.