We give an introduction to vague convergence and see several equivalent conditions of it.

Read moreWe compute the analytic continuation of the Riemann Zeta function and after that the reader will realise that asserting $1+2+\dots=-\frac{1}{12}$ without enough caution is not a good idea.

Read more$SU(2)$ has a lot of interesting mathematical and physical properties. In this post we study its irreducible representations in a mathematician's way.

Read moreWe develop two almost straightforward way to compute the Fourier transform of $\exp(-cx^2)$, in the sense that any contour integration and the calculus of residues are not required at all. The first cool approach enables us to think about these elementary concepts much deeper, so I highly recommend to study this approach as long as you are familiar with ODE of first order.

Read moreWe offer a detailed proof of the Riemann mapping theorem, which states that every proper simply connected region is conformally equivalent to the open unit disc.

Read moreIn this post, we study the concept of character, what it is about in abstract harmonic analysis and how to use it Galois theory.

Read moreThis blog post is intended to deliver a quick explanation of the algebra of Borel measures on $\mathbb{R}^n$. It will be broken into pieces. All complex-valued complex Borel measures $M(\mathbb{R}^n)$ clearly form a vector space over $\mathbb{C}$. The main goal of this post is to show that this is a Banach space and also a Banach algebra.

In fact, the $\mathbb{R}^n$ case can be generalised into any locally compact abelian group (see any abstract harmonic analysis books), this is because what really matters here is being locally compact and abelian. But at this moment we stick to Euclidean spaces. Note since $\mathbb{R}^n$ is $\sigma$-compact, all Borel measures are regular.

To read this post you need to be familiar with some basic properties of Banach algebra, complex Borel measures, and the most important, Fubini’s theorem.

In this post, we study the concept of generalised functions (a.k.a. distributions), and let's see how to evaluate the derivative no matter the function is differentiable or not.

Read moreWe study the average of sum, in the sense of integral.

Read moreThroughout we consider the Hilbert space $L^2=L^2(\mathbb{R})$, the space of all complex-valued functions with real variable such that $f \in L^2$ if and only if

where $m$ denotes the ordinary Lebesgue measure (in fact it’s legitimate to consider Riemann integral in this context).

For each $t \geq 0$, we assign an bounded linear operator $Q(t)$ such that

This is indeed bounded since we have $\lVert Q(t)f \rVert_2 = \lVert f \rVert_2$ as the Lebesgue measure is translate-invariant. This is a left translation operator with a single step $t$.