This blog post is intended to deliver a quick explanation of the algebra of Borel measures on \(\mathbb{R}^n\). It will be broken into pieces. All complex-valued complex Borel measures \(M(\mathbb{R}^n)\) clearly form a vector space over \(\mathbb{C}\). The main goal of this post is to show that this is a Banach space and also a Banach algebra.

In fact, the \(\mathbb{R}^n\) case can be generalised into any locally compact abelian group (see any abstract harmonic analysis books), this is because what really matters here is being locally compact and abelian. But at this moment we stick to Euclidean spaces. Note since \(\mathbb{R}^n\) is \(\sigma\)-compact, all Borel measures are regular.

To read this post you need to be familiar with some basic properties of Banach algebra, complex Borel measures, and the most important, Fubini's theorem.

Throughout we consider the Hilbert space \(L^2=L^2(\mathbb{R})\), the space of all complex-valued functions with real variable such that \(f \in L^2\) if and only if \[
\lVert f \rVert_2^2=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}|f(t)|^2dm(t)<\infty
\] where \(m\) denotes the ordinary Lebesgue measure (in fact it's legitimate to consider Riemann integral in this context).

For each \(t \geq 0\), we assign an bounded linear operator \(Q(t)\) such that \[
(Q(t)f)(s)=f(s+t).
\] This is indeed bounded since we have \(\lVert Q(t)f \rVert_2 = \lVert f \rVert_2\) as the Lebesgue measure is translate-invariant. This is a left translation operator with a single step \(t\).

(Gleason-Kahane-Żelazko) If \(\phi\) is a complex linear functional on a unitary Banach algebra \(A\), such that \(\phi(e)=1\) and \(\phi(x) \neq 0\) for every invertible \(x \in A\), then \[
\phi(xy)=\phi(x)\phi(y)
\] Namely, \(\phi\) is a complex homomorphism.

Notations and remarks

Suppose \(A\) is a complex unitary Banach algebra and \(\phi: A \to \mathbb{C}\) is a linear functional which is not identically \(0\) (for convenience), and if \[
\phi(xy)=\phi(x)\phi(y)
\] for all \(x \in A\) and \(y \in A\), then \(\phi\) is called a complex homomorphism on \(A\). Note that a unitary Banach algebra (with \(e\) as multiplicative unit) is also a ring, so is \(\mathbb{C}\), we may say in this case \(\phi\) is a ring-homomorphism. For such \(\phi\), we have an instant proposition:

Proposition 0\(\phi(e)=1\) and \(\phi(x) \neq 0\) for every invertible \(x \in A\).

Proof. Since \(\phi(e)=\phi(ee)=\phi(e)\phi(e)\), we have \(\phi(e)=0\) or \(\phi(e)=1\). If \(\phi(e)=0\) however, for any \(y \in A\), we have \(\phi(y)=\phi(ye)=\phi(y)\phi(e)=0\), which is an excluded case. Hence \(\phi(e)=1\).

For invertible \(x \in A\), note that \(\phi(xx^{-1})=\phi(x)\phi(x^{-1})=\phi(e)=1\). This can't happen if \(\phi(x)=0\). \(\square\)

The theorem reveals that Proposition \(0\) actually characterizes the complex homomorphisms (ring-homomorphisms) among the linear functionals (group-homomorphisms).

This theorem was proved by Andrew M. Gleason in 1967 and later independently by J.-P. Kahane and W. Żelazko in 1968. Both of them worked mainly on commutative Banach algebras, and the non-commutative version, which focused on complex homomorphism, was by W. Żelazko. In this post we will follow the third one.

Unfortunately, one cannot find an educational proof on the Internet with ease, which may be the reason why I write this post and why you read this.

Equivalences

Following definitions of Banach algebra and some logic manipulation, we have several equivalences worth noting.

Subspace and ideal version

(Stated by Gleason) Let \(M\) be a linear subspace of codimension one in a commutative Banach algebra \(A\) having an identity. Suppose no element of \(M\) is invertible, then \(M\) is an ideal.

(Stated by Kahane and Żelazko) A subspace \(X \subset A\) of codimension \(1\) is a maximal ideal if and only if it consists of non-invertible elements.

Spectrum version

(Stated by Kahane and Żelazko) Let \(A\) be a commutative complex Banach algebra with unit element. Then a functional \(f \in A^\ast\) is a multiplicative linear functional if and only if \(f(x)=\sigma(x)\) holds for all \(x \in A\).

Here \(\sigma(x)\) denotes the spectrum of \(x\).

The connection

Clearly any maximal ideal contains no invertible element (if so, then it contains \(e\), then it's the ring itself). So it suffices to show that it has codimension 1, and if it consists of non-invertible elements. Also note that every maximal ideal is the kernel of some complex homomorphism. For such a subspace \(X \subset A\), since \(e \notin X\), we may define \(\phi\) so that \(\phi(e)=1\), and \(\phi(x) \in \sigma(x)\) for all \(x \in A\). Note that \(\phi(e)=1\) holds if and only if \(\phi(x) \in \sigma(x)\). As we will show, \(\phi\) has to be a complex homomorphism.

Tools to prove the theorem

Lemma 0 Suppose \(A\) is a unitary Banach algebra, \(x \in A\), \(\lVert x \rVert<1\), then \(e-x\) is invertible.

This lemma can be found in any functional analysis book introducing Banach algebra.

Lemma 1 Suppose \(f\) is an entire function of one complex variable, \(f(0)=1\), \(f'(0)=0\), and \[
0<|f(\lambda)| \leq e^{|\lambda|}
\] for all complex \(\lambda\), then \(f(\lambda)=1\) for all \(\lambda \in \mathbb{C}\).

Note that there is an entire function \(g\) such that \(f=\exp(g)\). It can be shown that \(g=0\). Indeed, if we put \[
h_r(\lambda) = \frac{r^2g(\lambda)}{\lambda^2[2r-g(\lambda)]}
\] then we see \(h_r\) is holomorphic in the open disk centred at \(0\) with radius \(2r\). Besides, \(|h_r(\lambda)| \leq 1\) if \(|\lambda|=r\). By the maximum modulus theorem, we have \[
|h_r(\lambda)| \leq 1
\] whenever \(|\lambda| \leq r\). Fix \(\lambda\) and let \(r \to \infty\), by definition of \(h_r(\lambda)\), we must have \(g(\lambda)=0\).

Jordan homomorphism

A mapping \(\phi\) from one ring \(R\) to another ring \(R'\) is said to be a Jordan homomorphism from \(R\) to \(R'\) if \[
\phi(a+b)=\phi(a)+\phi(b)
\] and \[
\phi(ab+ba)=\phi(a)\phi(b)+\phi(b)\phi(a).
\] It's of course clear that every homomorphism is Jordan. Note if \(R'\) is not of characteristic \(2\), the second identity is equivalent to \[
\phi(a^2)=\phi(a)^2.
\]To show the equivalence, one let \(b=a\) in the first case and puts \(a+b\) in place of \(a\) in the second case.

Since in this case \(R=A\) and \(R'=\mathbb{C}\), the latter of which is commutative, we also write \[
\phi(ab+ba)=2\phi(a)\phi(b).
\] As we will show, the \(\phi\) in the theorem is a Jordan homomorphism.

The proof

We will follow an unusual approach. By keep 'downgrading' the goal, one will see this algebraic problem be transformed into a pure analysis problem neatly.

To begin with, let \(N\) be the kernel of \(\phi\).

Step 1 - It suffices to prove that \(\phi\) is a Jordan homomorphism

If \(\phi\) is a complex homomorphism, it is immediate that \(\phi\) is a Jordan homomorphism. Conversely, if \(\phi\) is Jordan, we have \[
\phi(xy+yx) =2\phi(x)\phi(y).
\] If \(x\in N\), the right hand becomes \(0\), and therefore \[
xy+yx \in N \quad \text{if } x \in N, y \in A.
\] Consider the identity \[
(xy-yx)^2+(xy+yx)^2=2[x(yxy)+(yxy)x]
\]

Therefore \[
\begin{aligned}
\phi((xy-yx)^2+(xy+yx)^2)&=\phi((xy-yx)^2)+\phi((xy+yx)^2) \\
&=\phi(xy-yx)^2+\phi(xy+yx)^2 \\
&= \phi(xy-yx)^2 \\
&=2\phi[x(yxy)+(yxy)x] \\
&=0
\end{aligned}
\] Since \(x \in N\) and \(yxy \in A\), we see \(x(yxy)+(yxy)x \in N\). Therefore \(\phi(xy-yx)=0\) and \[
xy-yx \in N
\] if \(x \in N\) and \(y \in A\). Further we see \[
xy-yx+xy+yx=2xy \in N \quad \text {and}\quad xy+yx-xy+yx = 2yx \in N,
\] which implies that \(N\) is an ideal. This may remind you of this classic diagram (we will not use it since it is additive though):

For \(x,y \in A\), we have \(x \in \phi(x)e+N\) and \(y \in \phi(y)e+N\). As a result, \(xy \in \phi(x)\phi(y)e+N\), and therefore \[
\phi(xy)=\phi(x)\phi(y)+0.
\]

Step 2 - It suffices to prove that \(\phi(a^2)=0\) if \(\phi(a)=0\).

Again, if \(\phi\) is Jordan, we have \(\phi(x^2)=\phi(x)^2\) for all \(x \in A\). Conversely, if \(\phi(a^2)=0\) for all \(a \in N\), we may write \(x\) by \[
x=\phi(x)e+a
\] where \(a \in N\) for all \(x \in A\). Therefore \[
\begin{aligned}
\phi(x^2)&=\phi((\phi(x)e+a)^2)=\phi(x)^2+2\phi(x)\phi(a)+\phi(a)^2=\phi(x)^2,
\end{aligned}
\] which also shows that \(\phi\) is Jordan.

Step 3 - It suffices to show that the following function is constant

Fix \(a \in N\), assume \(\lVert a \rVert = 1\) without loss of generality, and define \[
f(\lambda)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{\phi(a^n)}{n!}\lambda^n
\] for all complex \(\lambda\). If this function is constant (lemma 1), we immediately have \(f''(0)=\phi(a^2)=0\). This is purely a complex analysis problem however.

Step 4 - It suffices to describe the behaviour of an entire function

Note in the definition of \(f\), we have \[
\lvert \phi(a^n) \rvert \leq \lVert \phi \rVert \lVert a^n \rVert \leq \lVert \phi \rVert \lVert a \rVert^n=\lVert \phi \rVert.
\] So we expect the norm of \(\phi\) to be finite, which ensures that \(f\) is entire. By reductio ad absurdum, if \(\lVert e-a \rVert < 1\) for \(a \in N\), by lemma 0, we have \(e-e+a=a\) to be invertible, which is impossible. Hence \(\lVert e-a \rVert \geq 1\) for all \(a \in N\). On the other hand, for \(\lambda \in \mathbb{C}\), we have the following inequality: \[
\begin{aligned}
\lVert \lambda e-a \rVert = \lambda\lVert e-\lambda^{-1}a \rVert &\geq|\lambda| \\
&= |\phi(\lambda e)-\phi(a)| \\
&= |\phi(\lambda e-a)|
\end{aligned}
\] Therefore \(\phi\) is continuous with norm less than \(1\). The continuity of \(\phi\) is not assumed at the beginning but proved here.

For \(f\) we have some immediate facts. Since each coefficient in the series of \(f\) has finite norm, \(f\) is entire with \(f'(0)=\phi(a)=0\). Also, since \(\phi\) has norm \(1\), we also have \[
|f(\lambda)|=\left|\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{\phi(a^n)}{n!}\lambda^n\right| \leq \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{|\lambda^n|}{n!}=e^{|\lambda|}.
\] All we need in the end is to show that \(f(\lambda) \neq 0\) for all \(\lambda \in \mathbb{C}\).

The series \[
E(\lambda)=\exp(a\lambda)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(\lambda a)^n}{n!}
\] converges since \(\lVert a \rVert=1\). The continuity of \(\phi\) shows now \[
f(\lambda)=\phi(E(\lambda)).
\] Note \[
E(-\lambda)E(\lambda)=\left(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-\lambda a)^n}{n!}\right)\left(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(\lambda a)^n}{n!}\right)=e.
\] Hence \(E(\lambda)\)is invertible for all \(\lambda \in C\), hence \(f(\lambda)=\phi(E(\lambda)) \neq 0\). By lemma 1, \(f(\lambda)=1\) is constant. The proof is completed by reversing the steps. \(\square\)

References / Further reading

Walter Rudin, Real and Complex Analysis

Walter Rudin, Functional Analysis

Andrew M. Gleason, A Characterization of Maximal Ideals

J.-P. Kahane and W. Żelazko, A Characterization of Maximal Ideals in Commutative Banach Algebras

W. Żelazko A Characterization of Multiplicative linear functionals in Complex Banach Algebras

We are going to show the completeness of \(X/N\) where \(X\) is a TVS and \(N\) a closed subspace. Alongside, a bunch of useful analysis tricks will be demonstrated (and that's why you may find this blog post a little tedious.). But what's more important, the theorem proved here will be used in the future.

The main process

To make it clear, we should give a formal definition of \(F\)-space.

A topological space \(X\) is an \(F\)-space if its topology \(\tau\) is induced by a complete invariant metric \(d\).

A metric \(d\) on a vector space \(X\) will be called invariant if for all \(x,y,z \in X\), we have \[
d(x+z,y+z)=d(x,y).
\] By complete we mean every Cauchy sequence of \((X,d)\) converges.

Defining the quotient metric \(\rho\)

The metric can be inherited to the quotient space naturally (we will use this fact latter), that is

If \(X\) is a \(F\)-space, \(N\) is a closed subspace of a topological vector space \(X\), then \(X/N\) is still a \(F\)-space.

Suppose \(d\) is a complete invariant metric compatible with \(\tau_X\). The metric on \(X/N\) is defined by \[
\boxed{\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y))=\inf_{z \in N}d(x-y,z)}
\] ### \(\rho\) is a metric

Proof. First, if \(\pi(x)=\pi(y)\), that is, \(x-y \in N\), we see \[
\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y))=\inf_{z \in N}d(x-y,z)=d(x-y,x-y)=0.
\] If \(\pi(x) \neq \pi(y)\) however, we shall show that \(\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y))>0\). In this case, we have \(x-y \notin N\). Since \(N\) is closed, \(N^c\) is open, and \(x-y\) is an interior point of \(X-N\). Therefore there exists an open ball \(B_r(x-y)\) centered at \(x-y\) with radius \(r>0\) such that \(B_r(x-y) \cap N = \varnothing\). Notice we have \(d(x-y,z)>r\) since otherwise \(z \in B_r(x-y)\). By putting \[
r_0=\sup\{r:B_r(x-y) \cap N = \varnothing\},
\] we see \(d(x-y,z) \geq r_0\) for all \(z \in N\) and indeed \(r_0=\inf_{z \in N}d(x-y,z)>0\) (the verification can be done by contradiction). In general, \(\inf_z d(x-y,z)=0\) if and only if \(x-y \in \overline{N}\).

Next, we shall show that \(\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y))=\rho(\pi(y),\pi(x))\), and it suffices to assume that \(\pi(x) \neq \pi(y)\). Sgince \(d\) is translate invariant, we get \[
\begin{aligned}
d(x-y,z)&=d(x-y-z,0) \\
&=d(0,y-x+z) \\
&=d(-z,y-x) \\
&=d(y-x,-z).
\end{aligned}
\] Therefore the \(\inf\) of the left hand is equal to the one of the right hand. The identity is proved.

Finally, we need to verify the triangle inequality. Let \(r,s,t \in X\). For any \(\varepsilon>0\), there exist some \(z_\varepsilon\) and \(z_\varepsilon'\) such that \[
d(r-s,z_\varepsilon)<\rho(\pi(r),\pi(s))+\frac{\varepsilon}{2},\quad d(s-t,z'_\varepsilon)<\rho(\pi(s),\pi(t))+\frac{\varepsilon}{2}.
\] Since \(d\) is invariant, we see \[
\begin{aligned}
d(r-t,z_\varepsilon+z'_\varepsilon)&=d((r-s)+(s-t)-(z_\varepsilon+z'_\varepsilon),0) \\
&=d([(r-s)-z_\varepsilon]+[(s-t)-z'_\varepsilon],0) \\
&=d(r-s-z_\varepsilon,t-s+z'_\varepsilon) \\
&\leq d(r-s-z_\varepsilon,0)+d(t-s+z'_\varepsilon,0) \\
&=d(r-s,z_\varepsilon)+d(s-t,z'_\varepsilon)
\end{aligned}
\](I owe [@LeechLattice](https://onp4.com/@leechlattice) for the inequality above.)

Therefore \[
\begin{aligned}
d(r-t,z_\varepsilon+z'_\varepsilon)&\leq d(r-s,z_\varepsilon)+d(s-t,z'_\varepsilon) \\
&<\rho(\pi(r),\pi(s))+\rho(\pi(s),\pi(t))+\varepsilon.
\end{aligned}
\](Warning: This does not imply that \(\rho(\pi(r),\pi(s))+\rho(\pi(s),\pi(t))=\inf_z d(r-t,z)\) since we don't know whether it is the lower bound or not.)

If \(\rho(\pi(r),\pi(s))+\rho(\pi(s),\pi(t))<\rho(\pi(r),\pi(t))\) however, let \[
0<\varepsilon<\rho(\pi(r),\pi(t))-(\rho(\pi(r),\pi(s))+\rho(\pi(s),\pi(t)))
\] then there exists some \(z''_\varepsilon=z_\varepsilon+z'_\varepsilon\) such that \[
d(r-t,z''_\varepsilon)<\rho(\pi(r),\pi(t))
\] which is a contradiction since \(\rho(\pi(r),\pi(t)) \leq d(r-t,z)\) for all \(z \in N\).

(We are using the \(\varepsilon\) definition of \(\inf\). See here.)

\(\rho\) is translate invariant

Since \(\pi\) is surjective, we see if \(u \in X/N\), there exists some \(a \in X\) such that \(\pi(a)=u\). Therefore \[
\begin{aligned}
\rho(\pi(x)+u,\pi(y)+u) &=\rho(\pi(x)+\pi(a),\pi(y)+\pi(a)) \\
&=\rho(\pi(x+a),\pi(y+a)) \\
&=\inf_{z \in N}d(x+a-y-a,z) \\
&=\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y)).
\end{aligned}
\]

\(\rho\) is well-defined

If \(\pi(x)=\pi(x')\) and \(\pi(y)=\pi(y')\), we have to show that \(\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y))=\rho(\pi(x'),\pi(y'))\). In fact, \[
\begin{aligned}
\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y)) &\leq \rho(\pi(x),\pi(x'))+\rho(\pi(x'),\pi(y'))+\rho(\pi(y'),\pi(y)) \\
&=\rho(\pi(x'),\pi(y'))
\end{aligned}
\] since \(\rho(\pi(x),\pi(x'))=0\) as \(\pi(x)=\pi(x')\). Meanwhile \[
\begin{aligned}
\rho(\pi(x'),\pi(y')) &\leq \rho(\pi(x'),\pi(x)) + \rho(\pi(x),\pi(y)) + \rho(\pi(y),\pi(y')) \\
&= \rho(\pi(x),\pi(y)).
\end{aligned}
\] therefore \(\rho(\pi(x),\pi(y))=\rho(\pi(x'),\pi(y'))\).

\(\rho\) is compatible with \(\tau_N\)

By proving this, we need to show that a set \(E \subset X/N\) is open with respect to \(\tau_N\) if and only if \(E\) is a union of open balls. But we need to show a generalized version:

If \(\mathscr{B}\) is a local base for \(\tau\), then the collection \(\mathscr{B}_N\), which contains all sets \(\pi(V)\) where \(V \in \mathscr{B}\), forms a local base for \(\tau_N\).

Proof. We already know that \(\pi\) is continuous, linear and open. Therefore \(\pi(V)\) is open for all \(V \in \mathscr{B}\). For any open set around \(E \subset X/N\) containing \(\pi(0)\), we see \(\pi^{-1}(E)\) is open, and we have \[
\pi^{-1}(E)=\bigcup_{V\in\mathscr{B}}V
\] and therefore \[
E=\bigcup_{V \in \mathscr{B}}\pi(V).
\]

Now consider the local base \(\mathscr{B}\) containing all open balls around \(0 \in X\). Since \[
\pi(\{x:d(x,0)<r\})=\{u:\rho(u,\pi(0))<r\}
\] we see \(\rho\) determines \(\mathscr{B}_N\). But we have already proved that \(\rho\) is invariant; hence \(\mathscr{B}_N\) determines \(\tau_N\).

If \(d\) is complete, then \(\rho\) is complete.

Once this is proved, we are able to claim that, if \(X\) is a \(F\)-space, then \(X/N\) is still a \(F\)-space, since its topology is induced by a complete invariant metric \(\rho\).

Proof. Suppose \((x_n)\) is a Cauchy sequence in \(X/N\), relative to \(\rho\). There is a subsequence \((x_{n_k})\) with \(\rho(x_{n_k},x_{n_{k+1}})<2^{-k}\). Since \(\pi\) is surjective, we are able to pick some \(z_k \in X\) such that \(\pi(z_k) = x_{n_k}\) and such that \[
d(z_{k},z_{k+1})<2^{-k}.
\] (The existence can be verified by contradiction still.) By the inequality above, we see \((z_k)\) is Cauchy (can you see why?). Since \(X\) is complete, \(z_k \to z\) for some \(z \in X\). By the continuity of \(\pi\), we also see \(x_{n_k} \to \pi(z)\) as \(k \to \infty\). Therefore \((x_{n_k})\) converges. Hence \((x_n)\) converges since it has a convergent subsequence. \(\rho\) is complete.

Remarks

This fact will be used to prove some corollaries in the open mapping theorem. For instance, for any continuous linear map \(\Lambda:X \to Y\), we see \(\ker(\Lambda)\) is closed, therefore if \(X\) is a \(F\)-space, then \(X/\ker(\Lambda)\) is a \(F\)-space as well. We will show in the future that \(X/\ker(\Lambda)\) and \(\Lambda(X)\) are homeomorphic if \(\Lambda(X)\) is of the second category.

There are more properties that can be inherited by \(X/N\) from \(X\). For example, normability, metrizability, local convexity. In particular, if \(X\) is Banach, then \(X/N\) is Banach as well. To do this, it suffices to define the quotient norm by \[
\lVert \pi(x) \rVert = \inf\{\lVert x-z \rVert:z \in N\}.
\]

I'm assuming the reader has some abstract algebra and functional analysis background. You may have learned this already in your linear algebra class, but we are making our way to functional analysis problems.

Motivation

The trouble with \(L^p\) spaces

Fix \(p\) with \(1 \leq p \leq \infty\). It's easy to see that \(L^p(\mu)\) is a topological vector space. But it is not a metric space if we define \[
d(f,g)=\lVert f-g \rVert_p.
\] The reason is, if \(d(f,g)=0\), we can only get \(f=g\) a.e., but they are not strictly equal. With that being said, this function \(d\) is actually a pseudo metric. This is unnatural. However, the relation \(\sim\) by \(f \sim g \mathbb{R}ightarrow d(f,g)=0\) is a equivalence relation. This inspires us to take the quotient set into consideration.

Vector spaces are groups anyway

For a vector space \(V\), every subspace of \(V\) is a normal subgroup. There is no reason to prevent ourselves from considering the quotient group and looking for some interesting properties. Further, a vector space is an abelian group, therefore any subspace is automatically normal.

Definition

Let \(N\) be a subspace of a vector space \(X\). For every \(x \in X\), let \(\pi(x)\) be the coset of \(N\) that contains \(x\), that is \[
\pi(x)=x+N.
\] Trivially, \(\pi(x)=\pi(y)\) if and only if \(x-y \in N\) (say, \(\pi\) is well-defined since \(N\) is a vector space). This is a linear function since we also have the addition and multiplication by \[
\pi(x)+\pi(y)=\pi(x+y) \quad \alpha\pi(x)=\pi(\alpha{x}).
\] These cosets are the elements of a vector space \(X/N\), which reads, the quotient space of \(X\) modulo \(N\). The map \(\pi\) is called the canonical map as we all know.

Examples

First, we shall treat \(\mathbb{R}^2\) as a vector space, and the subspace \(\mathbb{R}\), which is graphically represented by \(x\)-axis, as a subspace (we will write it as \(X\)). For a vector \(v=(2,3)\), which is represented by \(AB\), we see the coset \(v+X\) has something special. Pick any \(u \in X\), for example, \(AE\), \(AC\), or \(AG\). We see \(v+u\) has the same \(y\) value. The reason is simple since we have \(v+u=(2+x,3)\), where the \(y\) value remains fixed however \(u\) may vary.

With that being said, the set \(v+X\), which is not a vector space, can be represented by \(\overrightarrow{AD}\). This proceed can be generalized to \(\mathbb{R}^n\) with \(\mathbb{R}^m\) as a subspace with ease.

We now consider a fancy example. Consider all rational Cauchy sequences, that is \[
(a_n)=(a_1,a_2,\cdots)
\] where \(a_k\in\mathbb{Q}\) for all \(k\). In analysis class, we learned two facts.

Any Cauchy sequence is bounded.

If \((a_n)\) converges, then \((a_n)\) is Cauchy.

However, the reverse of 2 does not hold in \(\mathbb{Q}\). For example, if we put \(a_k=(1+\frac{1}{k})^k\), we should have the limit to be \(e\), but \(e \notin \mathbb{Q}\).

If we define the addition and multiplication term by term, namely \[
(a_n)+(b_n)=(a_1+b_1,a_2+b_2,\cdots)
\] and \[
(\alpha a_n)=(\alpha a_1,\alpha a_2,\cdots)
\] where \(\alpha \in \mathbb{Q}\), we get a vector space (the verification is easy). The zero vector is defined by \[
(0)=(0,0,\cdots).
\] This vector space is denoted by \(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}\). The subspace containing all sequences converges to \(0\) will be denoted by \(\overline{\mathbb{O}}\). Again, \((a_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}}=(b_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}}\) if and only if \((a_n-b_n) \in \overline{\mathbb{O}}\). Using the language of equivalence relation, we also say \((a_n)\) and \((b_n)\) are equivalent if \((a_n-b_n) \in \overline{\mathbb{O}}\). For example, the two following sequences are equivalent: \[
(1,1,1,\cdots,1,\cdots)\quad\quad (0.9,0.99,0.999,\cdots).
\] Actually, we will get \(\mathbb{R} \simeq \overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\overline{\mathbb{O}}\) in the end. But to make sure that this quotient space is exactly the one we meet in our analysis class, there are a lot of verifications should be done.

We shall give more definitions for calculation. The multiplication of two Cauchy sequences is defined term by term à la the addition. For \(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\overline{\mathbb{O}}\) we have \[
((a_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}})+((b_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}})=(a_n+b_n) + \overline{\mathbb{O}}
\] and \[
((a_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}})((b_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}})=(a_nb_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}}.
\] As for inequality, a partial order has to be defined. We say \((a_n) > (0)\) if there exists some \(N>0\) such that \(a_n>0\) for all \(n \geq N\). By \((a_n) > (b_n)\) we mean \((a_n-b_n)>(0)\) of course. For cosets, we say \((a_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}}>\overline{\mathbb{O}}\) if \((x_n) > (0)\) for some \((x_n) \in (a_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}}\). This is well defined. That is, if \((x_n)>(0)\), then \((y_n)>(0)\) for all \((y_n) \in (a_n)+\overline{\mathbb{O}}\).

With these operations being defined, it can be verified that \(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\overline{\mathbb{O}}\) has the desired properties, for example, the least-upper-bound property. But this goes too far from the topic, we are not proving it here. If you are interested, you may visit here for more details.

Finally, we are trying to make \(L^p\) a Banach space. Fix \(p\) with \(1 \leq p < \infty\). There is a seminorm defined for all Lebesgue measurable functions on \([0,1]\) by \[
p(f)=\lVert f \rVert_p=\left\{\int_{0}^{1}|f(t)|^pdt\right\}^{1/p}
\]\(L^p\) is a vector space containing all functions \(f\) with \(p(f)<\infty\). But it's not a normed space by \(p\), since \(p(f)=0\) only implies \(f=0\) almost everywhere. However, the set \(N\) which contains all functions that equal \(0\) is also a vector space. Now consider the quotient space by \[
\tilde{p}(\pi(f))=p(f),
\] where \(\pi\) is the canonical map of \(L^p\) into \(L^p/N\). We shall prove that \(\tilde{p}\) is well-defined here. If \(\pi(f)=\pi(g)\), we have \(f-g \in N\), therefore \[
0=p(f-g)\geq |p(f)-p(g)|,
\] which forces \(p(f)=p(g)\). Therefore in this case we also have \(\tilde{p}(\pi(f))=\tilde{p}(\pi(g))\). This indeed ensures that \(\tilde{p}\) is a norm, and \(L^p/N\) a Banach space. There are some topological facts required to prove this, we are going to cover a few of them.

Topology of quotient space

Definition

We know if \(X\) is a topological vector space with a topology \(\tau\), then the addition and scalar multiplication are continuous. Suppose now \(N\) is a closed subspace of \(X\). Define \(\tau_N\) by \[
\tau_N=\{E \subset X/N:\pi^{-1}(E)\in \tau\}.
\] We are expecting \(\tau_N\) to be properly-defined. And fortunately, it is. Some interesting techniques will be used in the following section.

\(\tau_N\) is a vector topology

There will be two steps to get this done.

\(\tau_N\) is a topology.

It is trivial that \(\varnothing\) and \(X/N\) are elements of \(\tau_N\). Other properties are immediate as well since we have \[
\pi^{-1}(A \cap B) = \pi^{-1}(A) \cap \pi^{-1}(B)
\] and \[
\pi^{-1}(\cup A_\alpha)=\cup\pi^{-1}( A_{\alpha}).
\] That said, if we have \(A,B\in \tau_N\), then \(A \cap B \in \tau_N\) since \(\pi^{-1}(A \cap B)=\pi^{-1}(A) \cap \pi^{-1}(B) \in \tau\).

Similarly, if \(A_\alpha \in \tau_N\) for all \(\alpha\), we have \(\cup A_\alpha \in \tau_N\). Also, by definition of \(\tau_N\), \(\pi\) is continuous.

\(\tau_N\) is a vector topology.

First, we show that a point in \(X/N\), which can be written as \(\pi(x)\), is closed. Notice that \(N\) is assumed to be closed, and \[
\pi^{-1}(\pi(x))=x+N
\] therefore has to be closed.

In fact, \(F \subset X/N\) is \(\tau_N\)-closed if and only if \(\pi^{-1}(F)\) is \(\tau\)-closed. To prove this, one needs to notice that \(\pi^{-1}(F^c)=(\pi^{-1}(F))^{c}\).

Suppose \(V\) is open, then \[
\pi^{-1}(\pi(V))=N+V
\] is open. By definition of \(\tau_N\), we have \(\pi(V) \in \tau_N\). Therefore \(\pi\) is an open mapping.

If now \(W\) is a neighbourhood of \(0\) in \(X/N\), there exists a neighbourhood \(V\) of \(0\) in \(X\) such that \[
V + V \subset \pi^{-1}(W).
\] Hence \(\pi(V)+\pi(V) \subset W\). Since \(\pi\) is open, \(\pi(V)\) is a neighbourhood of \(0\) in \(X/N\), this shows that the addition is continuous.

The continuity of scalar multiplication will be shown in a direct way (so can the addition, but the proof above is intended to offer some special technique). We already know, the scalar multiplication on \(X\) by \[
\begin{aligned}
\varphi:\Phi \times X &\to X \\
(\alpha,x) &\mapsto \alpha{x}
\end{aligned}
\] is continuous, where \(\Phi\) is the scalar field (usually \(\mathbb{R}\) or \(\mathbb{C}\). Now the scalar multiplication on \(X/N\) is by \[
\begin{aligned}
\psi: \Phi \times X/N &\to X/N \\
(\alpha,x+N) &\mapsto \alpha{x}+N.
\end{aligned}
\] We see \(\psi(\alpha,x+N)=\pi(\varphi(\alpha,x))\). But the composition of two continuous functions is continuous, therefore \(\psi\) is continuous.

A commutative diagram by quotient space

We are going to talk about a classic commutative diagram that you already see in algebra class.

There are some assumptions.

\(X\) and \(Y\) are topological vector spaces.

\(\Lambda\) is linear.

\(\pi\) is the canonical map.

\(N\) is a closed subspace of \(X\) and \(N \subset \ker\Lambda\).

Algebraically, there exists a unique map \(f: X/N \to Y\) by \(x+N \mapsto \Lambda(x)\). Namely, the diagram above is commutative. But now we are interested in some analysis facts.

\(f\) is linear.

This is obvious. Since \(\pi\) is surjective, for \(u,v \in X/N\), we are able to find some \(x,y \in X\) such that \(\pi(x)=u\) and \(\pi(y)=v\). Therefore we have \[
\begin{aligned}
f(u+v)=f(\pi(x)+\pi(y))&=f(\pi(x+y)) \\
&=\Lambda(x+y) \\
&=\Lambda(x)+\Lambda(y) \\
&= f(\pi(x))+f(\pi(y)) \\
&=f(u)+f(v)
\end{aligned}
\] and \[
\begin{aligned}
f(\alpha{u})=f(\alpha\pi(x))&=f(\pi(\alpha{x})) \\
&= \Lambda(\alpha{x}) \\
&= \alpha\Lambda(x) \\
&= \alpha{f(\pi(x))} \\
&= \alpha{f(u)}.
\end{aligned}
\]

\(\Lambda\) is open if and only if \(f\) is open.

If \(f\) is open, then for any open set \(U \subset X\), we have \[
\Lambda(U)=f(\pi(U))
\] to be an open set since \(\pi\) is open, and \(\pi(U)\) is an open set.

If \(f\) is not open, then there exists some \(V \subset X/N\) such that \(f(V)\) is closed. However, since \(\pi\) is continuous, we have \(\pi^{-1}(V)\) to be open. In this case, we have \[
f(\pi(\pi^{-1}(V)))=f(V)=\Lambda(\pi^{-1}(V))
\] to be closed. \(\Lambda\) is therefore not open. This shows that if \(\Lambda\) is open, then \(f\) is open.

\(\Lambda\) is continuous if and only if \(f\) is continuous.

If \(f\) is continuous, for any open set \(W \subset Y\), we have \(\pi^{-1}(f^{-1}(W))=\Lambda^{-1}(W)\) to be open. Therefore \(\Lambda\) is continuous.

Conversely, if \(\Lambda\) is continuous, for any open set \(W \subset Y\), we have \(\Lambda^{-1}(W)\) to be open. Therefore \(f^{-1}(W)=\pi(\Lambda^{-1}(W))\) has to be open since \(\pi\) is open.