The Open Mapping Theorem

We are finally going to prove the open mapping theorem in $F$-space. In this version, only metric and completeness are required. Therefore it contains the Banach space version naturally.

(Theorem 0) Suppose we have the following conditions:

  1. $X$ is a $F$-space,
  2. $Y$ is a topological space,
  3. $\Lambda: X \to Y$ is continuous and linear, and
  4. $\Lambda(X)$ is of the second category in $Y$.

Then $\Lambda$ is an open mapping.

Proof. Let $B$ be a neighborhood of $0$ in $X$. Let $d$ be an invariant metric on $X$ that is compatible with the $F$-topology of $X$. Define a sequence of balls by

where $r$ is picked in such a way that $B_0 \subset B$. To show that $\Lambda$ is an open mapping, we need to prove that there exists some neighborhood $W$ of $0$ in $Y$ such that

To do this however, we need an auxiliary set. In fact, we will show that there exists some $W$ such that

We need to prove the inclusions one by one.

The first inclusion requires BCT. Since $B_2 -B_2 \subset B_1$, and $Y$ is a topological space, we get


according to BCT, at least one $k\Lambda(B_2)$ is of the second category in $Y$. But scalar multiplication $y\mapsto ky$ is a homeomorphism of $Y$ onto $Y$, we see $k\Lambda(B_2)$ is of the second category for all $k$, especially for $k=1$. Therefore $\overline{\Lambda(B_2)}$ has nonempty interior, which implies that there exists some open neighborhood $W$ of $0$ in $Y$ such that $W \subset \overline{\Lambda(B_1)}$. By replacing the index, it’s easy to see this holds for all $n$. That is, for $n \geq 1$, there exists some neighborhood $W_n$ of $0$ in $Y$ such that $W_n \subset \overline{\Lambda(B_n)}$.

The second inclusion requires the completeness of $X$. Fix $y_1 \in \overline{\Lambda(B_1)}$, we will show that $y_1 \in \Lambda(B)$. Pick $y_n$ inductively. Assume $y_n$ has been chosen in $\overline{\Lambda(B_n)}$. As stated before, there exists some neighborhood $W_{n+1}$ of $0$ in $Y$ such that $W_{n+1} \subset \overline{\Lambda(B_{n+1})}$. Hence

Therefore there exists some $x_n \in B_n$ such that

Put $y_{n+1}=y_n-\Lambda x_n$, we see $y_{n+1} \in W_{n+1} \subset \overline{\Lambda(B_{n+1})}$. Therefore we are able to pick $y_n$ naturally for all $n \geq 1$.

Since $d(x_n,0)<\frac{r}{2^n}$ for all $n \geq 0$, the sums $z_n=\sum_{k=1}^{n}x_k$ converges to some $z \in X$ since $X$ is a $F$-space. Notice we also have

we have $z \in B_0 \subset B$.

By the continuity of $\Lambda$, we see $\lim_{n \to \infty}y_n = 0$. Notice we also have

we see $y_1 = \Lambda z \in \Lambda(B)$.

The whole theorem is now proved, that is, $\Lambda$ is an open mapping. $\square$


You may think the following relation comes from nowhere:

But it’s not. We need to review some set-point topology definitions. Notice that $y_n$ is a limit point of $\Lambda(B_n)$, and $y_n-W_{n+1}$ is a open neighborhood of $y_n$. If $(y_n - W_{n+1}) \cap \Lambda(B_{n})$ is empty, then $y_n$ cannot be a limit point.

The geometric series by

is widely used when sum is taken into account. It is a good idea to keep this technique in mind.


The formal proof will not be put down here, but they are quite easy to be done.

(Corollary 0) $\Lambda(X)=Y$.

This is an immediate consequence of the fact that $\Lambda$ is open. Since $Y$ is open, $\Lambda(X)$ is an open subspace of $Y$. But the only open subspace of $Y$ is $Y$ itself.

(Corollary 1) $Y$ is a $F$-space as well.

If you have already see the commutative diagram by quotient space (put $N=\ker\Lambda$), you know that the induced map $f$ is open and continuous. By treating topological spaces as groups, by corollary 0 and the first isomorphism theorem, we have

Therefore $f$ is a isomorphism; hence one-to-one. Therefore $f$ is a homeomorphism as well. In this post we showed that $X/\ker{\Lambda}$ is a $F$-space, therefore $Y$ has to be a $F$-space as well. (We are using the fact that $\ker{\Lambda}$ is a closed set. But why closed?)

(Corollary 2) If $\Lambda$ is a continuous linear mapping of an $F$-space $X$ onto a $F$-space $Y$, then $\Lambda$ is open.

This is a direct application of BCT and open mapping theorem. Notice that $Y$ is now of the second category.

(Corollary 3) If the linear map $\Lambda$ in Corollary 2 is injective, then $\Lambda^{-1}:Y \to X$ is continuous.

This comes from corollary 2 directly since $\Lambda$ is open.

(Corollary 4) If $X$ and $Y$ are Banach spaces, and if $\Lambda: X \to Y$ is a continuous linear bijective map, then there exist positive real numbers $a$ and $b$ such that

for every $x \in X$.

This comes from corollary 3 directly since both $\Lambda$ and $\Lambda^{-1}$ are bounded as they are continuous.

(Corollary 5) If $\tau_1 \subset \tau_2$ are vector topologies on a vector space $X$ and if both $(X,\tau_1)$ and $(X,\tau_2)$ are $F$-spaces, then $\tau_1 = \tau_2$.

This is obtained by applying corollary 3 to the identity mapping $\iota:(X,\tau_2) \to (X,\tau_1)$.

(Corollary 6) If $\lVert \cdot \rVert_1$ and $\lVert \cdot \rVert_2$ are two norms in a vector space $X$ such that

  • $\lVert\cdot\rVert_1 \leq K\lVert\cdot\rVert_2$.
  • $(X,\lVert\cdot\rVert_1)$ and $(X,\lVert\cdot\rVert_2)$ are Banach

Then $\lVert\cdot\rVert_1$ and $\lVert\cdot\rVert_2$ are equivalent.

This is merely a more restrictive version of corollary 5.

The series

Since there is no strong reason to write more posts on this topic, i.e. the three fundamental theorems of linear functional analysis, I think it’s time to make a list of the series. It’s been around half a year.